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  1. Michael Clark
    Michael Clark at |

    Fortunately, Earth’s Collisions with Space Rocks usually involves relatively small
    objects entering the atmosphere, and fortunately most of them burn up while passing through the
    atmosphere, or the heating and compression makes them break up into numerous smaller pieces.
    Also, very fortunately, the Earth, and the rest of the Solar System has had 4544.4 million years to
    use up the vast majority of the largest Space Rocks, and now there are typically less than or equal to
    8 possible extinction event periods every 186.6 million years. Most of these extinction events are
    small, but occasionally they are big, like the one that occurred 66.043+/-0.011 million years ago. I
    did the calculations for that one several times by hand and came up with a diameter of just over 19 km,and combine velocity ” off center, nearly head on” collision of just over 68 km per second. The fire ball had a 473 km radius ( atmosphere is only 120 km tall ), and a simplified hemispheric crater would be have a radius of 53 km deep. Then I found out, there was a computer program on line that can do that calculation for you, and makes eliptical craters. They came up with 18 km diameter Space Rock. Anyway, the antipodal energy focal point was the Deccan Trapps in western India, when the Earth Radius was just less than 5,075 km (5,074.82 Km ), and Chicxulub was about 3.5 degrees north of the Equator, and Deccan Trapps was 3.5 degrees south of the Equator. To be antipodal, the Energy focal point is 180 degrees away from the impact point in all directions around the Earth. You need the size of the Earth, and the mass of the Earth at the time of the impact to get the escape velocity at the time of the impact to do M1* v1 = m2 * V2 calculations. You also need it to
    estimate the volume of the material that was put into orbit, the volume of the material that was ejected, and the volume of the material that was simply displaced laterally, but slumped back into the crater. ( Like the complex craters on the surface of the Moon )


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