Artist’s impression of a blue-eyed hunter-gatherer 10-7,000 years ago
(Credit: PELOPANTON / CSIC )
Isn’t it amazing how much we squabble about skin color and related issues in spite of current scientific data?
Today’s dominant hypotheses of human origins are all “out of Africa.” Dark skin would have been the “survival of the fittest” norm in equatorial Africa given the equatorial sun, and this is verified by DNA studies. I’ve seen nothing indicating dark skin wasn’t dominant in northern and southern Africa. Therefore, dark skin was the norm for all emigrants out of Africa, wherever they ended up around the globe. Blue eyes are a surprise, but that is supported by the DNA of this 7000-year-old character found in northwest Spain. Geneticists estimate blue eyes began developing above the Black Sea around 10,000 years ago. Here is the supporting article.
White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago
Light skin developed because, in colder climates, dark skin would emit heat faster than light skin—which is basic science and inexorably led to the survival of those who held body heat better in northern climates. Again, DNA data support this, and here’s the article.
Here is an article showing the progressive spread of DNA from the north-central steppes into west, south, central and east Asia and Europe. Remember, the spread of DNA is different than the spread of Indo-European language. The language gets spread by people with DNA but subsequently has a life of its own and further spreads primarily through its expressive superiority and utility to people outside the DNA group.
Here is an article which illustrates the “Spread of Indo-European and Uralic speakers in ADMIXTURE.” In the preceding link, we are referring to Genetic Admixture.
Thanks for visiting,
R. E. J. Burke